2.4 Walking distances
Walking distances were researched in some detail in the late 1980s and, based on the findings from these studies, the following are recommended:
Impaired group
Recommended distance limit without a rest
Wheelchair users
Visually impaired
Mobility impaired using stick
Mobility impaired without walking aid
These figures are average measures; there is a lot of variation between individuals. Gradients, weather conditions, whether there are handrails etc, will also affect the distances people are able to walk. US regulations, for example, note that on distances over 100 feet (30m) disabled people are apt to rest frequently. These regulations suggest that to estimate travel times over longer distances allowance should be made for two minutes rest time every 30 metres.
Research based on a follow-up study to the London Area Travel Survey found that of all the people with a disability who were able to walk at all, approximately 30 per cent could manage no more than 50 metres without stopping or severe discomfort and a further 20 per cent could only manage between 50 and 200 metres.
2.5 Standing
Standing is difficult and painful for some disabled people, particularly those with arthritis, rheumatism and back problems. In the same study as that mentioned above, nine per cent of the survey respondents could only stand for less than a minute without discomfort, 24 per cent could manage between one and five minutes and a further 22 per cent could stand for up to ten minutes. The findings from this study emphasize the importance of providing plenty of appropriately placed and designed seating at places where people may have to wait and along pedestrian routes. 
3.4 Seating
As mentioned in Sections 2.4 and 2.5, mobility impaired people need seating at reasonably frequent intervals. In commonly used pedestrian areas, and transport interchanges and stations, seats should be provided at intervals of no more 50 metres. Wherever possible seats should also be provided at bus stops and shelters. Seating should be placed adjacent to, but not obstructing, the pedestrian route and should be picked out in contrasting colours to help people with visual impairment (the design of seating is described in Section 9.3).


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